by using ball milling pretreatment, neutral sulte delignication, and cellulose upgradation, generating four target products (sugars, lignosulfonates, cellulose, and cellulose nanocrystals). The product yields are balanced to provide an intuitive view of the integrated protability of multi-products. In order to co-produce more prod-
Jun 01, 2019 In this work, ball milling pretreatment was used prior to the alcoholysis of cellulose over Al 2 (SO 4) 3 to promote the process at mild reaction temperatures under microwave irradiation, reaching an ML yield as high as 64.92 mol% at 170 C within 45 min, higher than reported results under the same reaction conditions.
Apr 22, 2020 In this work, cellulose (initially milled by vibrational milling) hydrolysis using biomass-derived sulfonated catalyst under microwave reactor was performed and optimized in terms of hydrolysis temperature, hydrolysis time, and substrate to catalyst ratio using response surface methodology (RSM) with Box-Behnken design (BBD) for the first time.
Amorphous cellulose-1 (pretreated by phosphoric acid) was more likely to be degraded than amorphous cellulose-2 (pretreated by ball-milling) because of the lower crystallinity, and the TRS and glucose yields reached 78.3% and 69.7%, respectively, after an 8-h reaction (Entry 9).
Ball milling a green technology for the preparation and functionalisation of nanocellulose derivatives Carmen C. Piras, a Susana Fernandez-Prieto b and Wim M. De Borggraeve *a Ball milling is a simple, fast, cost-eective green technology with enormous potential.
Ball-milled woods with two particle sizes were prepared by ball milling for 80min or 120min (BMW80, BMW120) and then enzymatically hydrolyzed. 78.3% cellulose conversion of BMW120 was achieved, which was three times as high as the conversion of BMW80.
Aug 01, 2017 The significantly reduced Cr in further milling indicated that the sufficient ball milling treatment time or enough small particle size resulted in the effective destruction of the crystalline structure in cellulose (Zhang et al., 2015, Jiang et al., 2016). The Cr HR80 was higher than the Cr HMW, and Cr HR120 have an improvement as well.
Jun 01, 2019 The particle size distribution is presented in Table 1.It can be seen that the D 50, namely median particle size, of microcrystalline cellulose (BM0) was far larger than that of ball-milled samples.As the increase of ball milling time from 0 to 10 min, D 50 decreased from 61.67 to 21.87 m. It gradually decreased with the prolonging of milling time and a minimum D 50 of 15.20 m was
Cellulose With Peruorinated Sulfonic Acid Ionomers. Front. ... a sulfonated peruorinated ionomer. Under optimized conditions, ... milling for altering the behavior of cellulose has been an ...
Dec 09, 2015 Sulfonated carbonaceous catalysts effectively catalyze the ... Y. H. et al. Promoting hydrolytic hydrogenation of cellulose to sugar alcohols by
Ball milling is a simple, fast, cost-effective green technology with enormous potential. One of the most interesting applications of this technology in the field of cellulose is the preparation and the chemical modification of cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibers. Although a number of studies have been repo Recent Review Articles Nanoscale Advances Most Popular Articles
Hydrolytic conversion of cellulose over heterogeneous acids. Reaction conditions cellulose pretreated by ball-milling 0.05 g, catalyst 0.05 g, water 5 mL, reaction time 24 h, temperature 423 K.
Avicel cellulose particles, before (average particle size 50 mm a, b) and after ball-milling pretreatment (average particle size 20 mm c). ChemCatChem 2011,3,8294 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbHCo. KGaA, Weinheim www.chemcatchem.org 83 Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose
Onda et al. were the rst to study the conversion of Samples with three different carbon contents, viz. 66, 50 and ball-mill pretreated cellulose over sulfonated activated carbon 33 wt%, were prepared by changing the concentration of the catalysts, and they achieved
Jun 03, 2021 Table 1 Catalytic conversion of cellulose over sulfonated silica /carbonnanocomposites. Reaction conditions cellulose pretreated by ball-milling 0.05 g, catalyst 0.05 g, water 5 mL, reaction time 24 h, temperature 423 K 6.
Arrhenius plot of ethanolysis of cellulose to ethyl levulinate on 5-Cl-SHPAO Table 2S. Properties of selected pure cellulose powders Properties Type cellulose Pretreatment Particle size ( m) Crystallinity (CrI%) DP ( units) Avicel PH-101 Ball-milling 57 5 116 Avicel PH-101 None 68 79 161 Sigmacell Type 20 None 29 76 168 S4
cellulose hydrolysis. The catalyst is prepared by mechanochemical oxidation of activated carbon using persulfate salts as oxidant in a planetary ball mill without using any solvent. In a typical catalyst preparation experiment, a steam activated carbon was milled with the solid oxidizing agent in
Jun 11, 2020 The solid was calcined at 800 C for 3 h in an air atmosphere 63 ./PAmberlyst 15 (supplier SigmaAldrich) was also used as a reference sulfonated system./PHigh energy ball milling of cellulose was carried out using a SPEX CertiPrep 8000-series Mixer/Mill, using vials with tungsten carbide-lined body and two 7/16 in. tungsten carbide ...
cellulose into glucose or saccharides using other solid acid catalysts, including a sulfonated activated-carbon catalyst (Onda et al., 2008) and amorphous carbon with a high density of sulfonic acid groups (SO3H) (Suganuma et al., 2008). Recently, heteropolyacids and polyvalent transition
Mar 22, 2018 Aquivion PW98, sulfonated SBA-15 and sulfonated mesoporous carbon (CMK-3-SO 3 H) were either synthesized, or purchased, and initially screened as potential solid acid catalysts for the effective depolymerization of cellulose via ball-milling. More information on these solid acid catalysts are provided in the supporting information (SI).
Ball-milling induced amorphization promotes a substantially higher substrate reactivity, because homogeneous hydrolysis occurs preferentially from less ordered structural domains in cellulose. In contrast, concerted ball-milling (CBM) of cellulose with the sulfonated carbon promotes a heterogeneously catalyzed hydrolysis to soluble ...
Reaction conditions cellulose pretreated by ball-milling 0.05 g, catalyst 0.05 g, water 5 mL, reaction time 24 h, temperature 423 K. With this knowledge in mind, we focused on the hydrolytic conversion of cellulose on the new class of sulfonated silica/carbon nanocomposites ( Fig. 2 ).
Cellulose (Avicel PH-101, microcrystalline) was characterized (i) as received from Sigma-Aldrich and (ii) after 24 h ball-milling pretreatment. Ball-milling with 25 g of cellulose was carried out using ZrO2 balls (mass 7.5 g diameter 1.8 cm). SEM images of cellulose
Ball-milling treatment of microcrystalline cellulose resulted in an insoluble material with -1,4-glycosidic bonds but containing large noncrystalline regions as conrmed by XRD and CP/MAS 13C NMR21). The re-action rate of cellulose hydrolysis using dilute sulfuric acid at 448 K increased with decreasing cellulose crys-tallinity21).
SEM micrograph of humins formed during the acid-catalyzed conversion of cellulose using sulfonated hyperbranched polymers. ... PH-101 cellulose pretreated by ball-milling. 0.04 g, 0.17 mmol H in ...
24 h ball-milling pretreatment. Ball-milling with 25 g of cellulose was carried out using ZrO2 balls (mass 7.5 g diameter 1.8 cm). SEM images in Figure S3 were taken with a high resolution Scanning Electron Microscope (Philips XL-30 FEG). Fig. S3 SEM characterization of Avicel PH-101 before (a-b) and after ball-milling (c).
a process for the prepartion of a pesticide in dry form by dispersing the pesticide in s sulfonated lignin solution and ball milling the despersion until the praticle size of at least 90 percent of the pesticide is reduced to less than 5 microns and then spray drying the mixture. the product obtained has relatively high bulk density and is readily dispersible in water.
Dec 23, 2005 The dilute acid (0.05 M H2SO4) hydrolysis at 175 C of samples comprised of varying fractions of crystalline (-form) and amorphous cellulose was studied. The amorphous content, based on XRD and CP/MAS NMR, and the product (glucose) yield, based on HPLC, increased by as much as a factor of 3 upon ball milling. These results are interpreted in terms of a model involving mechanical
Microcrystalline cellulose pretreated by ball milling achieved the highest glucose yield of 32% using this neoteric catalyst at 363 K. Catalysts retained 90% of their activity after five runs recycle.
Sep 15, 2020 Pang et al. employed sulfonated carbon at elevated temperatures for the hydrolysis of cellulose pretreated by ball-milling for 48 h. The sulfonation of the carbon materials was carried out by boiling the carbon materials in concentrated sulfuric acid (15 mL per gram of carbon) at 150300 C for 24 h under N 2 atmosphere.
Jun 01, 2021 The sulfonated polymer was separated by centrifugation, thoroughly rinsed with deionized water until the pH of filtrate reached about 7, and then dried under vacuum. 2.3. Ball-milling of cellulose. The ball-milling of Avicel was conducted on a Retsch planetary PM 100 ball mill. Avicel cellulose (5 g) was milled for 2 h in a stainless steel vial ...
Ball Milling. Cellulose materials were wet ball-milled with a PQ-N2 planetary ball mill (Livingston, NJ, USA). The enzymatically treated fibers were diluted to 1.0 wt% and then agitated by a mechanical blender for 10 min. Then 150 g of the diluted fibril slurry were put into an agate jar of 500 mL capacity.
The propensity of cellulose to undergo auto-hydrolysis could be enhanced by amorphizing its crystal structure through mechanical pretreatment in ball-mill. A heterogeneously catalyzed hydrolysis was achieved through mechanocatalytic processes facilitated by the concerted ball-milling (CBM) of the sulfonated carbon with the substrate.
Crystallinity of cellulose can be decreased by ball-milling, leading to amorphization and easier hydrolysis (Yu and Wu, 2011). Microwave radiations is also a very popular technique. When they hit cellulose, microwaves create hot spots that reduce the crystallinity of cellulose and increase its degradation under mild conditions (Liu et al., 2018).
Jun 18, 2021 A rapid and quantitative synthesis of xanthene derivatives using sulfonated graphitic carbon nitride under ball-milling. Omid Hosseinchi Qareaghaj, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Search for more papers by this author. Mohammad Ghaffarzadeh,