Cellular processing of platinum anticancer drugs. Cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are platinum-based drugs that are widely used in cancer chemotherapy. PlatinumDNA adducts, which are formed following uptake of the drug into the nucleus of cells, activate several cellular processes that mediate the cytotoxicity of these platinum drugs.
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Mar 02, 2018 Going platinum is never simple, and its important both colorists and clients know that the process to gettingand stayingthe perfect shade of platinum will require time, money and a lot of patience. I cant stress enough how crucial it is for clients to
Platinum scrap such as platinum coins, palladium PD and platinum wire is weighed and then smelted. As the platinum scrap liquefies in the furnace or melts under a blowtorch, flux is mixed in to separate the pure platinum from other precious and non-precious metals. A sample is removed for assaying, which is the process of measuring the platinum ...
Dec 12, 2012 How Is Platinum Mined Life123 Articles and Answers about Life . The first step in the mining process is getting the platinum ore out of the ground and into a refinery or processing plant. Two methods exist to extract platinum ore . More detailed.
The cellular distribution and processing pathways of two platinum compounds, modeling the antitumor drug cisplatin (cDDP) in human osteosarcoma (U2-OS) cells is reported. A Pt(en)Cl2 entity has been covalently linked to a carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) moiety and to a dinitrophenyl (DNP) moiety. The two different constructs were administered to living cell cultures that were analyzed ...
Process of recovering platinum group metal. US Patent 5252305. 65. Hoffmann JE (1988) Recovering platinum-group metals from auto catalyst. JOM 40(6)40 ...
Mar 21, 2017 The process of extracting platinum from the ore deposits is very labor intensive. In order to produce one troy once (31.135g) of pure platinum, about 7 to 12 tons of ore must be extracted in a span of six months. The first step in the extraction process is to crush the ore that contains platinum and submerge it in reagent mixture with water.
Feb 21, 2018 About 80% of the worlds reserves for platinum group metals (PGMs) are in South Africas Bushveld Igneous Complex. Processing of PGM involves comminution, flotation, smelting, converting, base metals refinery and precious metals refinery. Due to increasing chrome content in the feed and the challenges associated with operating high chrome feed, alternative routes to smelting of
1 day ago The WPIC report says that platinum market would be oversupplied by 769,000 ounces in 2021, the highest since 2013. Also, it estimates the oversupply to record marginal decline in 2022 to total 637,000 ounces. Earlier in September this year, WPIC had predicted surplus of 190,000 ounces.
Apr 01, 2005 Cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are platinum-based drugs that are widely used in cancer chemotherapy. Platinum-DNA adducts, which are formed following uptake of the drug into the nucleus of cells, activate several cellular processes that mediate the cytotoxicity of these platinum drugs.
Nov 25, 2021 Zimbabwes platinum production is estimated at 467 000 ounces in 2021, representing a 4 percent rise compared to 448 000 ounces recorded last year. In 2022, output is expected at 465 000 ounces. Underlying Zimbabwean mined output is expected to grow next year due to processing debottlenecking and mine development, WPIC said.
Aug 14, 2009 The literature review of processing methods for deactivated platinum-rhenium catalysts is presented, including a description of technologies used in practice. All known methods are divided into 2 main groups 1) with complete dissolution of the catalyst base and 2) based on selective recovery of platinum and rhenium. Advantages and disadvantages of technological processes are
Impala Platinum Limited is the worlds second largest platinum producer, producing more than 1.7 million ounces of the precious metal last year, much of this from the UG-2 reef located in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. As part of Impalas ongoing expansion programme, tonnage through their principal UG-2 processing facility, near
Processing of platinum Products. As a leading global manufacturer of crushing, grinding and mining equipments, we offer advanced, reasonable solutions for any size-reduction requirements including, Processing of platinum, quarry, aggregate, and different kinds of minerals.
Platinum Group Metals (PGMs) are recovered through underground and open pit mining from poly-metallic sulphide ores containing PGMs, Nickel, Copper and other metals Platinum (Pt), Palladium (Pd), Rhodium (Rh) and Ruthenium (Ru) are the most prevalent of the six PGMs, with Iridium (Ir), and Osmium (Os) found in much smaller quantities
They are then skimmed off for refining. The beginning of the refining is the done using the concentration process, the dried platinum froth is then smelted at incredibly high temperatures, then treated with air. After this occurs the Platinum is refined to remove any other particles or
Success depends on having good, functional equipment and process control, and learning all you can about the process before you cast your first flask. A Preparation Primer Lets begin with the basics To cast platinum, you need a casting machine, a torch, appropriate fuel, a burnout oven, the right investment, a suitable casting alloy, eye protection, and devesting solution.
The complex process for refining platinum. Image from UNCTAD. A platinum flotation circuit. In a process called flotation separation, air bubbles are blown through the mixture and carry platinum particles to the surface of the bath. The platinum-rich froth is skimmed from the bath and allowed to dry into a concentrated powder.
Dec 15, 2010 This work describes a route for processing spent platinum-based commercial catalysts (Pt and PtSnIn/Al 2 O 3) via fusion with potassium hydrogenosulfate (KHSO 4).Samples were previously ground. The optimized experimental parameters were temperature, 450 C time, 3 h sample/flux mass ratio, 1/10.The fused mass was dissolved in water and the elements present were
The six platinum group metals (PGMs) occur together in nature alongside nickel and copper. Mineable deposits of PGMs are very rare, with annual production amounting to around 400 tonnes, several orders of magnitude lower than many common metals. Due to their economic values and higher quantities, platinum and palladium are the most
Platinum One Processing strives to ensure that its services are accessible to people with disabilities. Platinum One Processing has invested a significant amount of resources to help ensure that its website is made easier to use and more accessible for people with disabilities, with the strong belief that every person has the right to live with ...
platinum group, six metals, in order of increasing atomic weight, ruthenium (Ru), rhodium (Rh), palladium (Pd), osmium (Os), iridium (Ir), and platinum (Pt). The elements all possess a silvery white colourexcept osmium, which is bluish white. The chemical behaviour of these metals is paradoxical in that they are highly resistant to attack by most chemical reagents yet, employed as catalysts ...
A process of recovering a platinum group metal from a waste catalyst comprising a first step which comprises heating and melting the catalyst impregnated with the platinum group metal, copper and/or the oxide of copper, a flux component and a reductant component to form a layer containing the metal copper into which the platinum group metal is absorbed and another layer of the oxide, and then ...
The production of nanometer-scale features on platinum samples was investigated with the use of a femtosecond (fs) laser system operational at IR, visible and UV wavelengths. Laser induced surface structures were produced having globular nanoprotrusions with apparent length scales ranging from sub-nanometer diameters to 100s of nanometers ...
Provided is a method involving flotation of a feed of platinum group metal ore material to prepare a platinum group metal concentrate during mineral processing operations. Prior to and/or during the flotation, a lead-containing activator reagent and a xanthate collector reagent are added to the slurry and during the flotation, an oxygen-deficient flotation gas, such as nitrogen gas, is used.
Nov 20, 2019 As many nickel ores also contain PGMs, Vale is able to extract platinum as a by-product of its nickel-refining process. The company takes PGM-containing concentrates from its Sudbury, Canada, operations to a processing facility in Port Colborne, Ontario, which produces PGMs, gold, and silver intermediate products.
Chemically, platinum is an element with the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It belongs to noble metals, being one of the rarer elements in Earths crust. Platinum is also a member of the family of platinum group metals (PGMs) which also includes palladium, rhodium, iridium, osmium, and ruthenium.
In commercial terms, platinum is now obtained as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing. Today, platinum is most commonly used in the production of new cars. Vehicle emissions control devices rely heavily on platinum. These are known as catalytic converters. This is the single biggest use of platinum in the contemporary world ...
Platinum-group metals (PGMs) occur in a layer averaging 2.4m-thick and are associated with pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and pentlandite. As of December 2019, Stillwater is estimated to contain mineral reserves of 26.8Mt at a grade of 19.4g/t containing 16.7Moz, while East Boulder is expected to hold 21.5Mt of reserves at 14.7g/t with 10.2Moz of ...
Apr 01, 2013 The platinum-group element (PGE) systematics of continental mantle peridotites show large variability, reflecting petrogenetic processing of the upper mantle during partial melting and melt/fluid percolation inside the lithosphere.
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Platinum 2012 695 R. Rumpold, J. Antrekowitsch RECYCLING OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS FROM AUTOMOTIVE CATALYSTS BY AN ACIDIC LEACHING PROCESS R. Rumpold University of Leoben J. Antrekowitsch University of Leoben Abstract The platinum group metals (PGMs) palladium, platinum, and rhodium represent the key ...
The signal processing circuit of platinum resistance temperature sensor products can use constant voltage source or constant current source. Through the study of constant voltage source, it is found that there are problems such as instability and low precision in practical applications.